Archive for the ‘Voltage references’ Category

A 1.6 ppm/°C bandgap voltage reference for an extended operating temperature range

September 3, 2014 Leave a comment

A new CMOS bandgap voltage reference (BGR) is proposed and simulated using Silterra 0.13 µm CMOS technology. The proposed BGR utilizes 3 curvature-corrected current generators that compensate for the output voltage variation in an extended temperature range. The proposed circuit generates an output voltage of 1.181 V with a variation of 380 µV from −50 °C to 150 °C.

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Voltage Reference Application and Design Note

April 3, 2013 Leave a comment

What and Why is a Voltage Reference?

Conceptually, a voltage reference is a very simple device with only one purpose in its life. Quite simply, the purpose of a voltage reference is to generate an exact output voltage no matter what happens with respect to its operating voltage, load current, temperature changes or the passage of time.

The purpose of this Application Note is to provide an understanding of voltage references, their limits of error, and interesting application circuits using high accuracy voltage references. The Intersil X60008 voltage reference approaches the design in a new and exciting topology that provides extremely tight initial tolerance, low temperature drift, and unbelievably low operating current.

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Understanding and Applying Voltage References

March 29, 2013 Leave a comment

By Mitchell Lee  

Specifying the right reference and applying it correctly is a more difficult task than one might first surmise, consid- ering that references are only 2- or 3-terminal devices. Although the word “accuracy” is most often spoken in reference to references, it is dangerous to use this word too freely because it can mean different things to different people. Even more perplexing is the fact that a reference classified as a dog in one application is a panacea in another. This application note will familiarize the reader with the various aspects of reference “accuracy” and present some tips on extracting maximum performance from any reference.

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March 21, 2013 Leave a comment

A reference circuit is an independent voltage or current source which has a high degree of precision and stability.

  • Output voltage/current should be independent of power supply.
  • Output voltage/current should be independent of temperature.
  • Output voltage/current should be independent of processing variations

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Understanding Voltage-Reference Topologies and Specifications

March 21, 2013 Leave a comment


Abstract: This document covers the three most popular topologies of voltage references. These include bandgap and buried zener topologies in three-terminal series voltage references and zener topologies in two-terminal shunt voltage references. Also demystified are the definitions of common voltage reference parameters.

The first considerations in choosing a voltage reference are output voltage and initial accuracy. Often overlooked, however, are the various other data-sheet parameters that can assume major importance in specific applications. The following discussion of voltage-reference basics will help you better understand the performance parameters associated with the most common voltage-reference topologies: the two-terminal shunt and the three-terminal series designs.

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Development of the Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit, Featuring Dynamic-Threshold MOS Transistors (DTMOSTs)

March 21, 2013 Leave a comment
1.The 0.13um CMOS Technology.
2.Implementation of Voltage Bandgap Reference in the 0.13um CMOS Technology.
3.Dynamic-Threshold MOS Transistors (DTMOST) structure. Features, characterization, modeling.
4.Circuit submitted in the experimental run.

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Voltage reference and bandgap circuits

March 20, 2013 Leave a comment
  • Basic blocks for voltage reference circuits
  • Characteristics of bipolar transistors
  • Temperature dependence of BJT characteristics
  • Temperature dependence of ΔVBE

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